In Jewish history, the seventh day is the Sabbath Day, a day of rest. Likewise, the seventh year was the sabbatical year or a year of rest.
In Jewish history, the seventh day is the Sabbath Day, a day of rest. This is theologically so because God himself finished the work of creation on that day and rested; he also blessed and hallowed it (Genesis 2,2-3). This is why God commands: “Six days you shall do your work, but on the seventh day you shall rest; that your ox and your ass may have rest, and the son of your bondmaid, and the alien, may be refreshed.” (Exodus 23,12).
Likewise, the seventh year was the sabbatical year or a year of rest – the equivalent of the seventh day in years. It has a similar observance as the Sabbath day:
“For six years you shall sow your land and gather in its yield; but the seventh year you shall let it rest and lie fallow, that the poor of your people may eat; and what they leave the wild beasts may eat. You shall do likewise with your vineyard, and with your olive orchard”.
Over and above that, the seventh year was also to be a year of “release” of both debts and slaves (Deuteronomy 15:1-18).
The Sabbath, the sabbatical year, and the year of Jubilee function in later Scriptures as typologies of the ideal age when Yahweh will reign supreme over the entire world. Since the year of Jubilee marked the release of all Israelites from debt and servitude, it became a typology of the ideal age when everyone will be free from all debts, living on their Yahweh-given inheritance and zealously worshipping Yahweh.